Hombres transgénero

¿Quienes son los hombres trans? Transgenero (‘trans’) es un término sombrilla para aquellas personas las cuales la identidad de género y expresión no conforman las normas y expectaciones tradicionales asociadas al género asignado al nacer. Hombres transgenero, también conocidos como hombres trans, son personas a las que se les asigno ‘femenino’ a la hora de nacer y tienen una identidad de género y/o una expresión de genero masculina.

Crack cocaine

What are the HIV prevention needs of crack cocaine users? Prepared by Margaret R. Weeks PhD, Institute for Community Research and Pamela DeCarlo, CAPS Fact Sheet 66, December 2009

UFO Presents! A viral hepatitis prevention and education program for young adult IDUs

Young injection drug users (IDU) are at high risk for viral infections, such as HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to frequent injecting, needle/syringe and other drug preparation equipment sharing, high numbers of sexual partners, and exchange of sex for money or drugs. Street youth who inject have high unemployment, poor education, and mental health issues.

Black women

Black women and men in the US are hard hit by HIV, and have been since the beginning of the epidemic. In 2006, Black women accounted for 61% of new HIV cases among women, but make up only 12% of US female population. The rate of HIV diagnoses for Black women is 15 times the rate for White women. Black women also have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), which can facilitate transmission of HIV.

Mujeres negras

Desde el inicio de la epidemia, el VIH ha azotado a los hombres y mujeres negros radicados en EE.UU. A pesar de componer sólo el 12% de la población femenina del país, en el 2006 las mujeres negras representaban el 61% de los casos nuevos entre mujeres. Se diagnostica el VIH a mujeres negras con 15 veces más frecuencia que a mujeres caucásicas. Las mujeres negras también tienen altas tasas de infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS), lo cual puede promover la transmisión del VIH.

Mujeres negras

¿Qué necesitan las mujeres negras para evitar el VIH? ¿Afecta el VIH a las mujeres negras? Sí. Desde el inicio de la epidemia, el VIH ha azotado a los hombres y mujeres negros radicados en EE.UU.


¿Cuál es el papel de las prisiones y cárceles en la prevención del VIH? ¿Es importante hacer prevención en las prisiones y cárceles? Definitivamente. EE.UU. tiene la mayor proporción de personas encarceladas del mundo y la cifra sigue en aumento.1 En el 2007 las instituciones correccionales estatales, federales y locales alojaban a 2.4 millones de reclusos.2 Por primera vez más de uno de cada 100 adultos en EE.UU.

Prisons and jails

What is the role of prisons and jails in HIV prevention? Is prevention in prisons and jails important? Absolutely.

Studying Youth in Northern California (SYNC)

Substance use among youth and young adults continues to pose a variety of public health challenges. Young people who use opiates (heroin) and methamphetamine are more likely to have high risk sexual and injection practices, as well as more likely to be HIV+. Drug use among youth may be associated with a variety of problems including family trauma, academic difficulties, mental and physical health problems, sexual abuse, incarceration, poor peer relationships and violence.

A novel condom distribution program for county jail prisoners

Correctional facilities concentrate populations that are at risk for HIV infection: persons of color, persons with substance abuse histories, and persons living in poverty.1,2 As a result, the prevalence of HIV among US incarcerated populations is five to seven times that of the general US population.3,4 Furthermore, about 25% of people living with HIV in the US have been incarcerated.5 These statistics support the need for access to effective means of HIV prevention and harm reduction strategie

What are transgender women’s HIV prevention needs?

Transgender is an umbrella term for persons whose gender identity and expression does not conform to norms and expectations traditionally associated with their sex assigned at birth. Transgender persons may self-identify as transgender, female, male, trans-woman or -man, transsexual, cross-dresser, bigender, gender queer, gender questioning, MtF, FtM or one of many other transgender identities, and may express their genders in a variety of masculine, feminine and androgynous ways.


¿Qué necesitan las/los trabajadores sexuales en la prevención del VIH? revisado 4/08

Sex Workers

are sex workers at risk for HIV? Sex workers in the US may be at risk for HIV depending on the conditions of their workplace.


¿Qué necesitan las mujeres en la prevención del VIH en EEUU? ¿corren riesgo de contraer el VIH? Sí. El VIH afecta a cada vez más mujeres y muchachas en EEUU. En 1985, las mujeres componían el sólo el 8 % de los casos de SIDA en EEUU, en comparación con el 27 % en el año 2005.


What are US women’s HIV prevention needs? are women at risk? Yes. HIV is taking an increasing toll on women and girls in the US. In 1985, women comprised 8% of all AIDS cases in the US, while by 2005, women made up 27% of all AIDS cases. In 2005, women accounted for 30% of all new HIV infections. Of these, 60% occurred among African Americans, 19% among Whites, 19% among Hispanics, and 1% each among Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

China MSM Stigma Scale

Instrument: China MSM stigma scale. Scoring: Included in article. Reliability or validity: Neilands TB, Steward WT, Choi K-H. Assessment of Stigma towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men. Arch Sex Behav. 2008 Oct;37(5):838-44.

India HIV-Related Stigma Scales

Instrument: India HIV-related stigma scales Scoring: Included in article. Reliability or validity: Steward WT, Herek GM, Ramakrishna J, Bharat S, Chandy S, Wrubel J, Ekstrand ML.

Modified Schedule of Sexist Events (SSE-LM)

Instrument: SSE-LM Scoring: Included in article Reliability or validity: Bowleg L, Neilands TB, Choi K-H. Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of a Modified Schedule of Sexist Events: Implications for Public Health Research on Women’s HIV Risk Behaviors.


¿Cómo ayuda la evaluación en la prevención del VIH? ¿qué es la evaluación? La mayoría de los proveedores de servicios de prevención del VIH realizan actividades periódicas de evaluación y recolección de datos, aunque tal vez no consideren que sea una evaluación.


How does evaluation help in HIV prevention? what is evaluation? Most HIV prevention service providers conduct evaluation and data collection activities on a regular basis, although they may not consider it evaluation. Writing case notes during a prevention case management session, discussing client feedback on program services, watching needle exchange in action, taking notes at staff meetings: these are all examples of “informal” data collection that happen every day.