Tor Neilands, PhD

Professor

My research activities fall into four domains: (1) quantitative data analysis methods and survey scale development; (2) directorship of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) Methods Core; (3) fostering and conducting behavioral HIV/AIDS-prevention research in racial and ethnic minority populations and communities by increasing research capacity among early-career faculty of color conducting social and behavioral HIV/AIDS-prevention research; and (4) advanced quantitative methodological, statistical, and data analytic support for biomedical and behavioral HIV and tobacco use prevention research studies.

I am a Professor at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) in the Department of Medicine at UCSF and direct the Center’s Methods Core. Originally trained as a social psychologist, I spent eight years as a statistical consultant at the University of Texas academic computing center before coming to CAPS in 2001. Since arriving at CAPS, I have participated as statistical co-investigator or consultant on over 60 NIH, CDC, and state projects in the areas of HIV prevention, reproductive health, and tobacco prevention. My methodological areas of interest are multivariate statistical models with a special interest in latent variable models for survey scale development and validation, and mixed effects (i.e., multilevel; HLM) models for clustered and longitudinal data, including dyadic data. My substantive interests include training the next generation of HIV-prevention prevention researchers working in U.S. minority communities. I am currently PI of two NIH-sponsored R25 research education grants to foster grant-writing and related research capacity-building for early-career faculty working in U.S. minority communities to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and STIs and to improve the lives of those living with HIV/AIDS. I also actively collaborate as a senior statistician and quantitative methods co-investigator on multiple HIV prevention and tobacco prevention research projects. I am also a co-author of Primer of Applied Regression & Analysis of Variance with Drs. Stanton Glantz and Bryan Slinker (McGraw-Hill, 2016).
Education
PhD, 12/1993 - Psychology, University of Texas
BA, 06/1988 - English Literature, University of California
BA, 06/1988 - Psychology, University of California
Websites
Publications
  1. Feasibility and acceptability of novel methods to estimate antiretroviral adherence: A longitudinal study.
  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce HIV-Related Risk in African American Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women: the Bruthas Project.
  3. Buffering Internalization of HIV-Stigma: Implications for Treatment Adherence and Depression.
  4. Community collective efficacy is associated with reduced physical intimate partner violence (IPV) incidence in the rural province of Mpumalanga, South Africa: findings from HPTN 068.
  5. Examining the nonkin support networks of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-based economic-strengthening intervention in Uganda.
  6. Does Economic Strengthening Improve Viral Suppression Among Adolescents Living with HIV? Results From a Cluster Randomized Trial in Uganda.
  7. Cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and substance use among Latino and non-Latino White patients in HIV care: an analysis of the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort.
  8. Village community mobilization is associated with reduced HIV incidence in young South African women participating in the HPTN 068 study cohort.
  9. Randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention for methamphetamine users.
  10. Studying the Motivations Behind Sexual Agreements: A First Look at the Motivations Behind Agreement (MBA) Scale for Male Couples.
  11. Composite Risk for HIV: A New Approach Towards Integrating Biomedical and Behavioral Strategies in Couples-Based HIV Prevention Research.
  12. Population mobility associated with higher risk sexual behaviour in eastern African communities participating in a Universal Testing and Treatment trial.
  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Arrests for Drug Possession After California Proposition 47, 2011-2016.
  14. Novel methods to estimate antiretroviral adherence: protocol for a longitudinal study.
  15. Best Practices for Developing and Validating Scales for Health, Social, and Behavioral Research: A Primer.
  16. A novel household water insecurity scale: Procedures and psychometric analysis among postpartum women in western Kenya.
  17. Suubi4Her: a study protocol to examine the impact and cost associated with a combination intervention to prevent HIV risk behavior and improve mental health functioning among adolescent girls in Uganda.
  18. Development and Validation of the Power Imbalance in Couples Scale.
  19. Effects of Financial Incentives on Saving Outcomes and Material Well-Being: Evidence From a Randomized Controlled Trial in Uganda.
  20. If someone cares about you, you are more apt to come around: improving HIV care engagement by strengthening the patient-provider relationship.
  21. Minority stress and leukocyte gene expression in sexual minority men living with treated HIV infection.
  22. An update on the Barriers to Adherence and a Definition of Self-Report Non-adherence Given Advancements in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).
  23. Context matters: Community social cohesion and health behaviors in two South African areas.
  24. Methods for sampling geographically mobile female traders in an East African market setting.
  25. A Strengths-Based Case Management Intervention to Reduce HIV Viral Load Among People Who Use Drugs.
  26. Cost-Effectiveness of a Savings-Led Economic Empowerment Intervention for AIDS-Affected Adolescents in Uganda: Implications for Scale-up in Low-Resource Communities.
  27. Development of an Index of Engagement in HIV Care: An Adapted Internet-Based Delphi Process.
  28. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Antiretrovirals in Home-Collected and Study-Collected Hair Samples: Implications for Adherence Monitoring.
  29. Development and preliminary validation of a post-fistula repair reintegration instrument among Ugandan women.
  30. The social context of hormone and silicone injection among Puerto Rican transwomen.
  31. Development and validation of a novel scale for measuring interpersonal factors underlying injection drug using behaviours among injecting partnerships.
  32. Specification of implementation interventions to address the cascade of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings: a systematic review.
  33. Erratum to: Relationship Dynamics and Partner Beliefs About Viral Suppression: A Longitudinal Study of Male Couples Living with HIV/AIDS (The Duo Project).
  34. Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study.
  35. Beyond negative attitudes: Examining HIV/AIDS stigma behaviors in clinical encounters.
  36. Factual text and emotional pictures: overcoming a false dichotomy of cigarette warning labels.
  37. High Mobility and HIV Prevalence Among Female Market Traders in East Africa in 2014.
  38. Depression and Risk for Problem Drinking in Latino Migrant Day Laborers.
  39. Spirituality/religiosity, substance use, and HIV testing among young black men who have sex with men.
  40. Relationship Power Among Same-Sex Male Couples in New York and San Francisco: Laying the Groundwork for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions Focused on Interpersonal Power.
  41. Evaluation of the Tsima community mobilization intervention to improve engagement in HIV testing and care in South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.
  42. Do Emotions Spark Interest in Alternative Tobacco Products?
  43. Community Mobilization for HIV Testing Uptake: Results From a Community Randomized Trial of a Theory-Based Intervention in Rural South Africa.
  44. Living Conditions and Psychological Distress in Latino Migrant Day Laborers: The Role of Cultural and Community Protective Factors.
  45. A longitudinal study of persistent smoking among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships.
  46. Using Path Analysis to Evaluate the Healthcare Empowerment Model Among Persons Living with HIV for Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence.
  47. Partner Reports of HIV Viral Suppression Predict Sexual Behavior in Serodiscordant Male Couples.
  48. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.
  49. A community-engaged randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.
  50. Exposure to Community Violence and Sexual Behaviors Among African American Youth: Testing Multiple Pathways.
  51. Relationship Dynamics and Partner Beliefs About Viral Suppression: A Longitudinal Study of Male Couples Living with HIV/AIDS (The Duo Project).
  52. Neighborhood context, psychological outlook, and risk behaviors among urban African American youth.
  53. Evaluation of Bar and Nightclub Intervention to Decrease Young Adult Smoking in New Mexico.
  54. Experiences of Violence Among Transgender Women in Puerto Rico: An Underestimated Problem.
  55. Development, validation, and performance of a scale to measure community mobilization.
  56. La desesperación in Latino migrant day laborers and its role in alcohol and substance-related sexual risk.
  57. Patient-reported factors associated with reengagement among HIV-infected patients disengaged from care in East Africa.
  58. [EXPERIENCES RELATED TO AN INTERVENTION TO REDUCE STIGMA RELATED TO HIV / AIDS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN PUERTO RICO].
  59. The Social Prioritization Index and Tobacco Use Among Young Adult Bar Patrons.
  60. Qualitative Contributions to a Randomized Controlled Trial Addressing HIV/AIDS-Stigma in Medical Students.
  61. Retention in Care and Patient-Reported Reasons for Undocumented Transfer or Stopping Care Among HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Eastern Africa: Application of a Sampling-Based Approach.
  62. Multiple tobacco product use among young adult bar patrons in New Mexico.
  63. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents.
  64. Chinese Immigrant Religious Institutions' Variability in Views on Preventing Sexual Transmission of HIV.
  65. Sample Size for Joint Testing of Indirect Effects.
  66. The role of emotions in the reduction of HIV/AIDS stigma among physicians in training.
  67. Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study.
  68. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.
  69. Social Branding to Decrease Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Young Adult Smoking.
  70. School victimization and substance use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescents.
  71. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.
  72. Matched Child Savings Accounts in Low-Resource Communities: Who Saves?
  73. Dual use of smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes with cigarettes and cessation.
  74. A qualitative analysis of male couples' coping with HIV: Disentangling the "we".
  75. CD41 T cell recovery during suppression of HIV replication: an international comparison of the immunological efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in North America, Asia and Africa.
  76. Stimulant use patterns and HIV transmission risk among HIV-serodiscordant male couples.
  77. Barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence and plasma HIV RNA suppression among AIDS clinical trials group study participants.
  78. Wreaking "havoc" on smoking: social branding to reach young adult "partiers" in Oklahoma.
  79. Motivations to test for HIV among partners in concordant HIV-negative and HIV-discordant gay male couples.
  80. Poor Families Striving to Save in Matched Children's Savings Accounts: Findings from a Randomized Experimental Design in Uganda.
  81. Neighborhood context and Black heterosexual men's sexual HIV risk behaviors.
  82. Association between dog guardianship and HIV clinical outcomes.
  83. Association between dog guardianship and HIV clinical outcomes.
  84. Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico: a cultural challenge for training future physicians.
  85. Religion and HIV/AIDS stigma in Puerto Rico: a cultural challenge for training future physicians.
  86. An omitted level: an examination of relational orientations and viral suppression among HIV serodiscordant male couples.
  87. Community-based harm reduction substance abuse treatment with methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.
  88. Latino children's body mass index at 2-3.5 years predicts sympathetic nervous system activity at 5 years.
  89. Dual tobacco user subtypes in the U.S. Air Force: dependence, attitudes, and other correlates of use.
  90. Stimulant use and HIV disease management among men in same-sex relationships.
  91. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.
  92. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.
  93. Sexual risk for HIV among gay male couples: a longitudinal study of the impact of relationship dynamics.
  94. Secondhand smoke exposure among young adult sexual minority bar and nightclub patrons.
  95. Testing pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American youth.
  96. Social oppression, psychological vulnerability, and unprotected intercourse among young Black men who have sex with men.
  97. Testing the efficacy of an HIV stigma reduction intervention with medical students in Puerto Rico: the SPACES project.
  98. Alcohol use and HIV disease management: the impact of individual and partner-level alcohol use among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  99. Past present: Relationship dynamics may differ among discordant gay male couples depending on HIV infection history.
  100. Secondhand smoke exposure and smoking behavior among young adult bar patrons.
  101. Exposure to crime and trauma among HIV-infected men who have sex with men: associations with HIV stigma and treatment engagement.
  102. Failure to initiate antiretroviral therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality among HIV-infected patients during the pre-ART period in Uganda.
  103. Positive affect and processes of recovery among treatment-seeking methamphetamine users.
  104. Testing messages to reduce smokers' openness to using novel smokeless tobacco products.
  105. Transgender women of color: discrimination and depression symptoms.
  106. Relationship characteristics associated with sexual risk behavior among MSM in committed relationships.
  107. The role of gender on HIV/AIDS stigma among medical students in Puerto Rico: implications for training and service delivery.
  108. Ambiguity, ambivalence, and apprehensions of taking HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis among male couples in San Francisco: a mixed methods study.
  109. Rates of testing for HIV in the presence of serodiscordant UAI among HIV-negative gay men in committed relationships.
  110. Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of Health Care Empowerment: development and validation of the Health Care Empowerment inventory.
  111. Advances in measuring culturally competent care: a confirmatory factor analysis of CAHPS-CC in a safety-net population.
  112. Primary relationships, HIV treatment adherence, and virologic control.
  113. Relationship dynamics as predictors of broken agreements about outside sexual partners: implications for HIV prevention among gay couples.
  114. Preliminary support for the construct of health care empowerment in the context of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus.
  115. Social, structural and behavioral determinants of overall health status in a cohort of homeless and unstably housed HIV-infected men.
  116. Risks worth taking: safety agreements among discordant gay couples.
  117. Partner-provided social support influences choice of risk reduction strategies in gay male couples.
  118. Expectancy and readiness-based predictors of treatment uptake among the urban poor living with HIV.
  119. Impact of CD8+ T-cell activation on CD4+ T-cell recovery and mortality in HIV-infected Ugandans initiating antiretroviral therapy.
  120. The impact of a comprehensive microfinance intervention on depression levels of AIDS-orphaned children in Uganda.
  121. Medication adherence: tailoring the analysis to the data.
  122. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors.
  123. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for HIV treatment side effects: a randomized, wait-list controlled trial.
  124. Assessing geographic and individual level factors associated with arrests among injection drug users in California.
  125. Retention in care and connection to care among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Africa: estimation via a sampling-based approach.
  126. Quality of sleep: associations with antiretroviral nonadherence.
  127. Basic subsistence needs and overall health among human immunodeficiency virus-infected homeless and unstably housed women.
  128. A randomized noninferiority trial of standard versus enhanced risk reduction and adherence counseling for individuals receiving post-exposure prophylaxis following sexual exposures to HIV.
  129. Population-level effects of uninterrupted health insurance on services use among HIV-positive unstably housed adults.
  130. Mother-daughter communication and college women's confidence to communicate with family members and doctors about the human papillomavirus and sexual health.
  131. Determinants of frequency, duration, and continuity of home walking in patients with COPD.
  132. Partner reports of patients' HIV treatment adherence.
  133. Adolescent sexual abstinence: a test of an integrative theoretical framework.
  134. Effectiveness of an HIV prevention program for women visiting their incarcerated partners: the HOME Project.
  135. Improving coping skills for self-management of treatment side effects can reduce antiretroviral medication nonadherence among people living with HIV.
  136. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.
  137. Sorting through chickens and eggs: a longitudinal examination of the associations between attitudes, norms, and sexual risk behavior.
  138. Disease profile of children under 5 years attending primary health care clinics in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa.
  139. Evidence of persistent low-level viremia in long-term HAART-suppressed, HIV-infected individuals.
  140. Suicidal ideation is associated with HIV transmission risk in men who have sex with men.
  141. Relationship characteristics and motivations behind agreements among gay male couples: differences by agreement type and couple serostatus.
  142. Stigmatization of illicit drug use among Puerto Rican health professionals in training.
  143. Tracking a sample of patients lost to follow-up has a major impact on understanding determinants of survival in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Africa.
  144. Community violence and health risk factors among adolescents on Chicago's southside: does gender matter?
  145. Effect of economic assets on sexual risk-taking intentions among orphaned adolescents in Uganda.
  146. Development and validation of the sexual agreement investment scale.
  147. Low School Engagement and Sexual Behaviors among African American Youth: Examining the Influences of Gender, Peer Norms, and Gang Involvement.
  148. Estimation of sensitivity and specificity of several Trypanosoma cruzi antibody assays in blood donors in Argentina.
  149. Development and validation of a culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale for Puerto Rican health professionals in training.
  150. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seroprevalence in population-based samples of African children: evidence for at least 2 patterns of KSHV transmission.
  151. Gender-specific correlates of incarceration among marginally housed individuals in San Francisco.
  152. Asset ownership and health and mental health functioning among AIDS-orphaned adolescents: findings from a randomized clinical trial in rural Uganda.
  153. Childhood sexual abuse and the sociocultural context of sexual risk among adult Latino gay and bisexual men.
  154. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.
  155. Serostatus differences and agreements about sex with outside partners among gay male couples.
  156. Violence and women's psychological distress after birth: an exploratory study in Italy.
  157. Disparities in reported reasons for not initiating or stopping antiretroviral treatment among a diverse sample of persons living with HIV.
  158. Mediators of childhood sexual abuse and high-risk sex among men-who-have-sex-with-men.
  159. Rapid vs. standard HIV testing in bathhouses: what is gained and lost?
  160. Bringing it home: design and implementation of an HIV/STD intervention for women visiting incarcerated men.
  161. Randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for HIV-positive persons: an investigation of treatment effects on psychosocial adjustment.
  162. Childhood sexual experiences and adult health sequelae among gay and bisexual men: defining childhood sexual abuse.
  163. A validation and short form of the Basic Character Inventory.
  164. Assessment of stigma towards homosexuality in China: a study of men who have sex with men.
  165. Closing bathhouses unlikely to decrease number of sex acts and may reduce condom use.
  166. Paradigm shifters, professionals, and community sentinels: immigrant community institutions' roles in shaping places and implications for stigmatized public health initiatives.
  167. Predictors of attrition among high risk HIV-infected participants enrolled in a multi-site prevention trial.
  168. Evaluating the validity and reliability of a modified schedule of sexist events: implications for public health research on women's HIV risk behaviors.
  169. Out of sight, not out of mind: strategies for handling missing data.
  170. Pathways to Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Detained Adolescents.
  171. Untitled Publication
  172. Smoking in movies and increased smoking among young adults.
  173. Adherence to a home-walking prescription in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  174. Psychographic segments based on attitudes about smoking and lifestyle among Vietnamese-American adolescents.
  175. The effect of support for action against the tobacco industry on smoking among young adults.
  176. The role of self-efficacy in HIV treatment adherence: validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES).
  177. Housing patterns and correlates of homelessness differ by gender among individuals using San Francisco free food programs.
  178. Coping with HIV treatment side effects: conceptualization, measurement, and linkages.
  179. Neuroticism, Side Effects, and Health Perceptions Among HIV-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Medications.
  180. A study of the relationship between parental bonding, self-concept and eating disturbances in Norwegian and American college populations.
  181. Estimating HIV incidence in voluntary counseling and testing clients in Uganda (1992-2003).
  182. Structural equation modeling: a primer for health behavior researchers.
  183. Interruption of enfuvirtide in HIV-1 infected adults with incomplete viral suppression on an enfuvirtide-based regimen.
  184. Bathhouse-based voluntary counseling and testing is feasible and shows preliminary evidence of effectiveness.
  185. A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale.
  186. An adolescent-targeted HIV prevention project using African professional soccer players as role models and educators in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
  187. Gender-specific correlates of sex trade among homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco.
  188. A Social Problem-Solving Model of Adherence to HIV Medications.
  189. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties, benchmarking data, and emerging research.
  190. Seroconversion following nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis against HIV.
  191. Interruption of treatment with individual therapeutic drug classes in adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection.
  192. Correction: The effect of executive walk rounds on nurse safety climate attitudes: A randomized trial of clinical units [ISRCTN85147255].
  193. The effect of executive walk rounds on nurse safety climate attitudes: a randomized trial of clinical units[ISRCTN85147255] [corrected].
  194. Commentary on Schroder et al. (2003a, 2003b).
  195. Higher prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino men who have sex with men than non-Latino men who have sex with men: data from the Urban Men's Health Study.
  196. High level of hepatitis B infection and ongoing risk among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2000-2001.
  197. An opportunity for prevention: prevalence, incidence, and sexual risk for HIV among young Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men, San Francisco.
  198. Use of postexposure prophylaxis against HIV infection following sexual exposure does not lead to increases in high-risk behavior.
  199. Interpreting the uninterpretable: The effect of self-esteem on the interpretation of meaningless feedback.
  200. Strong cell-mediated immune responses are associated with the maintenance of low-level viremia in antiretroviral-treated individuals with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
  201. Why HIV infections have increased among men who have sex with men and what to do about it: findings from California focus groups.
  202. The drugs or the disease? Causal attributions of symptoms held by HIV-positive adults on HAART.
  203. A validation and reduced form of the Female Condom Attitudes Scale.