Amy Conroy, PhD

Faculty

I am a behavioral scientist with multidisciplinary training from the fields of public health, psychology, and sociology. Broadly, my research seeks to understand and intervene upon health behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, cardiometabolic disorders, alcohol use, mental health, and intimate partner violence. Specifically, I am interested in dyadic aspects of health within heterosexual couples. My research is grounded in theory from the field of relationship science, and employs mixed-methods and dyadic analysis techniques to understand couple-level health behavior. The majority of my research takes place in southern Africa and builds off a career development award to understand how relationship dynamics impact engagement in HIV care and treatment, which led to three follow-up studies. The first two studies aim to develop and evaluate couple-based approaches to reduce heavy alcohol use in South Africa and in Malawi. The third study is an observational cohort study in Malawi with couples living with HIV and cardiometabolic disorders to inform a model of multimorbidity disease management. I am also involved in other global health projects including an RCT of a couple-based intervention to increase engagement in HIV treatment in South Africa. Finally, my research leverages data from the Women's Interagency HIV/AIDS Study (now called the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study) to examine how gender-based violence impacts food insecurity and HIV treatment outcomes to develop trauma-informed health interventions for U.S. women. My program of research is funded by a diverse set of NIH institutes including the NIMH, NIAAA, NHLBI, and NIAID, and has led to over 40 publications in top journals.
Education
Postdoctoral Fellowship in AIDS Prevention Studies, - Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco
- Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California San Francisco
Ph.D., - Health and Behavioral Sciences, University of Colorado Denver
M.P.H., - Public Health, University of Colorado Denver
B.S.E., - Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa
Honors and Awards
  • CFAR Early-Career Excellence Award in Socio-Behavioral Research, UCSF Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), 2021
  • Mentored Scientist Award in HIV/AIDS Research, UCSF Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), 2019-2020
  • CFAR Extension Award in HIV/AIDS Research, UCSF Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), 2017-2018
  • Mentored Scientist Award in HIV/AIDS Research, UCSF Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), 2013-2014
Publications
  1. Msimango L, Butterfield R, Starks TJ, van Heerden A, Neilands TB, Hahn JA, Chibi B, Humphries H, Conroy AA. Couples motivational interviewing with mobile breathalysers to reduce alcohol use in South Africa: a pilot randomised controlled trial of Masibambisane. BMJ open 2024. PMID: 38296300


  2. Jere J, Ruark A, Bidwell JT, Butterfield RM, Neilands TB, Weiser SD, Mulauzi N, Mkandawire J, Conroy AA. "High blood pressure comes from thinking too much": Understandings of illness among couples living with cardiometabolic disorders and HIV in Malawi. PloS one 2023. PMID: 38153924


  3. Ruark A, Bidwell JT, Butterfield R, Weiser SD, Neilands TB, Mulauzi N, Mkandawire J, Conroy AA. "I too have a responsibility for my partner's life": Communal coping among Malawian couples living with HIV and cardiometabolic disorders. Social science & medicine (1982) 2023. PMID: 38199009


  4. Allison Ruark, Julie T. Bidwell, Rita Butterfield, Sheri D. Weiser, Torsten B. Neilands, Nancy Mulauzi, James Mkandawire, Amy A. Conroy. “I too have a responsibility for my partner's life”: Communal coping among Malawian couples living with HIV and cardiometabolic disorders. Social Science & Medicine 2023. PMID:


  5. Onono MA, Frongillo EA, Sheira L, Odhiambo G, Wekesa P, Conroy A, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Weiser SD. Links between household-level income-generating agricultural intervention and the psychological wellbeing of adolescent girls in HIV-affected households in southwestern Kenya: A qualitative inquiry. The Journal of nutrition 2023. PMID: 37863268


  6. Gutin SA, Ruark A, Darbes LA, Neilands TB, Mkandawire J, Conroy AA. Supportive couple relationships buffer against the harms of HIV stigma on HIV treatment adherence. BMC public health 2023. PMID: 37770885


  7. Kane JC, Allen I, Fatch R, Scheffler A, Emenyonu N, Puryear SB, Chirayil P, So-Armah K, Kahler CW, Magidson JF, Conroy AA, Edelman EJ, Woolf-King S, Parry C, Kiene SM, Chamie G, Adong J, Go VF, Cook RL, Muyindike W, Morojele N, Blokhina E, Krupitsky E, Fiellin DA, Hahn JA. Efficacy of alcohol reduction interventions among people with HIV as evaluated by self-report and a phosphatidylethanol (PEth) outcome: protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. BMJ open 2023. PMID: 37280036


  8. Palar K, Sheira LA, Frongillo EA, Kushel M, Wilson TE, Conroy AA, Adedimeji A, Merenstein D, Cohen MH, Wentz EL, Adimora AA, Ofotokun I, Metsch LR, Turan JM, Tien PC, Weiser SD. Longitudinal Relationship Between Food Insecurity, Engagement in Care, and ART Adherence Among US Women Living with HIV. AIDS and behavior 2023. PMID: 37067613


  9. Conroy AA, Tebbetts S, Darbes LA, Hahn JA, Neilands TB, McKenna SA, Mulauzi N, Mkandawire J, Ssewamala FM. Development of an Economic and Relationship-Strengthening Intervention for Alcohol Drinkers Living with HIV in Malawi. AIDS and behavior 2022. PMID: 36520335


  10. Amy A Conroy, Julie T Bidwell, Allison Ruark, Rita Butterfield, Torsten Neilands, Sheri Weiser, Nancy Mulauzi, James Mkandawire, Jacqueline Huwa. Abstract 10263: “High Blood Pressure Comes From Thinking Too Much”: Health Beliefs Among Couples With Cardiometabolic Disorders and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Circulation 2022. PMID:


  11. Allison Ruark, Julie T Bidwell, Rita Butterfield, Torsten Neilands, Sheri Weiser, Nancy Mulauzi, James Mkandawire, Jacqueline Huwa, Amy Conroy. Abstract 12908: Primary Partners Provide Key Social Support for the Management of Cardiometabolic Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. Circulation 2022. PMID:


  12. Dube K, Agarwal H, Stockman JK, Auerbach JD, Sauceda JA, Conroy A, Johnson M. "I would absolutely need to know that my partner is still going to be protected": Perceptions of HIV Cure-Related Research among Diverse HIV Serodifferent Couples in the United States. AIDS research and human retroviruses 2022. PMID: 35972752


  13. Jain JP, Sheira LA, Frongillo EA, Neilands TB, Cohen MH, Wilson TE, Chandran A, Adimora AA, Kassaye SG, Sheth AN, Fischl MA, Adedimeji AA, Turan JM, Tien PC, Weiser SD, Conroy AA. Mechanisms linking gender-based violence to worse HIV treatment and care outcomes among women in the United States. AIDS (London, England) 2022. PMID: 35950940


  14. Campbell DM, Dubé K, Cowlings PD, Dionicio P, Tam RM, Agarwal H, Stockman JK, Auerbach JD, Sauceda JA, Conroy AA, Johnson MO. "It comes altogether as one:" perceptions of analytical treatment interruptions and partner protections among racial, ethnic, sex and gender diverse HIV serodifferent couples in the United States. BMC public health 2022. PMID: 35810288


  15. Conroy AA, McKenna S, Ruark A, Neilands TB, Spinelli M, Gandhi M. Relationship Dynamics are Associated with Self-Reported Adherence but not an Objective Adherence Measure in Malawi. "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2022. PMID: 35507094


  16. Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Dooley EE, Ganson KT, Conroy AA, Pettee Gabriel K. Parent-adolescent agreement in reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2022. PMID: 35172771


  17. Conroy AA, Jain JP, Sheira L, Frongillo EA, Neilands TB, Cohen MH, Wilson TE, Chandran A, Adimora AA, Kassaye S, Sheth AN, Fischl MA, Adedimeji A, Turan JM, Tien PC, Weiser SD. Mental Health Mediates the Association between Gender-Based Violence and HIV Treatment Engagement in U.S. Women. "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2021. PMID: 34723926


  18. Nagata JM, Cortez CA, Iyer P, Ganson KT, Chu J, Conroy AA. Parent-adolescent discrepancies in adolescent recreational screen time reporting during the COVID-19 pandemic. "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2021. PMID: 34923146


  19. Onono MA, Odhiambo G, Sheira L, Conroy A, Neilands TB, Bukusi EA, Weiser SD. The role of food security in increasing adolescent girls' agency towards sexual risk taking: qualitative findings from an income generating agricultural intervention in southwestern Kenya. "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2021. PMID: 34742285


  20. Conroy AA, Ruark A, Neilands TB, Darbes LA, Johnson MO, Tan JY, Mkandawire J. Development and Validation of the Couple Sexual Satisfaction Scale for HIV and Sexual Health Research. Archives of sexual behavior 2021. PMID: 34609644


  21. Tuthill EL, Maltby AE, Odhiambo BC, Akama E, Pellowski JA, Cohen CR, Weiser SD, Conroy AA. "I Found Out I was Pregnant, and I Started Feeling Stressed": A Longitudinal Qualitative Perspective of Mental Health Experiences Among Perinatal Women Living with HIV. AIDS and behavior 2021. PMID: 33997940


  22. Conroy AA, Leddy AM, Darbes LA, Neilands TB, Mkandawire J, Stephenson R. Bidirectional Violence Is Associated with Poor Engagement in HIV Care and Treatment in Malawian Couples. Journal of interpersonal violence 2020. PMID: 32946327


  23. Conroy AA, Ruark A, McKenna SA, Tan JY, Darbes LA, Hahn JA, Mkandawire J. The Unaddressed Needs of Alcohol-Using Couples on Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi: Formative Research on Multilevel Interventions. AIDS and behavior 2019. PMID: 31456201


  24. Tuthill EL, Neilands TB, Johnson MO, Sauceda J, Mkandawire J, Conroy AA. A Dyadic Investigation of Relationship Dynamics and Depressive Symptoms in HIV-Affected Couples in Malawi. AIDS and behavior 2019. PMID: 31273489


  25. Hatcher AM, Hofstedler LL, Doria K, Dworkin SL, Weke E, Conroy A, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Weiser SD. Mechanisms and perceived mental health changes after a livelihood intervention for HIV-positive Kenyans: Longitudinal, qualitative findings. Transcultural psychiatry 2019. PMID: 31242065


  26. Diamond-Smith N, Conroy AA, Tsai AC, Nekkanti M, Weiser SD. Food insecurity and intimate partner violence among married women in Nepal. Journal of global health 2019. PMID: 30774941


  27. Conroy AA, Cohen MH, Frongillo EA, Tsai AC, Wilson TE, Wentz EL, Adimora AA, Merenstein D, Ofotokun I, Metsch L, Kempf MC, Adedimeji A, Turan JM, Tien PC, Weiser SD. Food insecurity and violence in a prospective cohort of women at risk for or living with HIV in the U.S. PloS one 2019. PMID: 30840700


  28. Tan, J.
    Pratto, F.
    Conroy, A.
    Lee, I.. Leveraging Power in Intimate Partner Relationships: A Power Basis Perspective. In C. Agnew & J. Harman (Eds.), Power in Close Relationships (Advances in Personal Relationships, pp. 72-85) "HIV within the House Ball Community and the Promise of Community-based Social Structures for Intervention and Support" 2019. PMID:


  29. Conroy AA, McKenna SA, Ruark A. Couple Interdependence Impacts Alcohol Use and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi. AIDS and behavior 2018. PMID: 30218319


  30. Woolf-King SE, Conroy AA, Fritz K, Johnson MO, Hosegood V, van Rooyen H, Darbes L, McGrath N. Alcohol use and relationship quality among South African couples. Substance use & misuse 2018. PMID: 30407888


  31. Tan JY, Campbell CK, Conroy AA, Tabrisky AP, Kegeles S, Dworkin SL. Couple-Level Dynamics and Multilevel Challenges Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Framework of Dyadic HIV Care. AIDS patient care and STDs 2018. PMID: 30339464


  32. Conroy AA, McKenna SA, Comfort ML, Darbes LA, Tan JY, Mkandawire J. Marital infidelity, food insecurity, and couple instability: A web of challenges for dyadic coordination around antiretroviral therapy. Social science & medicine (1982) 2018. PMID: 30172140


  33. Tan JY, Campbell CK, Tabrisky AP, Siedle-Khan R, Conroy AA. A Conceptual Model of Dyadic Coordination in HIV Care Engagement Among Couples of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Dyadic Analysis. AIDS and behavior 2018. PMID: 29464429


  34. Conroy AA, McKenna SA, Leddy A, Johnson MO, Ngubane T, Darbes LA, van Rooyen H. "If She is Drunk, I Don't Want Her to Take it": Partner Beliefs and Influence on Use of Alcohol and Antiretroviral Therapy in South African Couples. AIDS and behavior 2017. PMID: 28150121


  35. Conroy A, Leddy A, Johnson M, Ngubane T, van Rooyen H, Darbes L. 'I told her this is your life': relationship dynamics, partner support and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among South African couples. Culture, health & sexuality 2017. PMID: 28398134


  36. Gamarel KE, Neilands TB, Conroy AA, Dilworth SE, Lisha N, Taylor JM, Darbes LA, Johnson MO. A longitudinal study of persistent smoking among HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in primary relationships. Addictive behaviors 2016. PMID: 27930901


  37. Conroy AA, Gamarel KE, Neilands TB, Sauceda JA, Darbes LA, Dilworth SE, Taylor JM, Johnson MO. Partner Reports of HIV Viral Suppression Predict Sexual Behavior in Serodiscordant Male Couples. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 2016. PMID: 27367791


  38. Conroy AA, Tsai AC, Clark GM, Boum Y, Hatcher AM, Kawuma A, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Bangsberg DR, Weiser SD. Relationship Power and Sexual Violence Among HIV-Positive Women in Rural Uganda. AIDS and behavior 2016. PMID: 27052844


  39. Conroy AA, Gamarel KE, Neilands TB, Dilworth SE, Darbes LA, Johnson MO. Relationship Dynamics and Partner Beliefs About Viral Suppression: A Longitudinal Study of Male Couples Living with HIV/AIDS (The Duo Project). AIDS and behavior 2016. PMID: 27150895


  40. Conroy AA, McGrath N, van Rooyen H, Hosegood V, Johnson MO, Fritz K, Marr A, Ngubane T, Darbes LA. Power and the association with relationship quality in South African couples: Implications for HIV/AIDS interventions. Social science & medicine (1982) 2016. PMID: 26859436


  41. Conroy AA, Wong LH. How reliable are self-reports of HIV status disclosure? Evidence from couples in Malawi. Social science & medicine (1982) 2015. PMID: 26379084


  42. Conroy AA. Marital infidelity and intimate partner violence in rural Malawi: a dyadic investigation. Archives of sexual behavior 2014. PMID: 24789050


  43. Conroy AA. The influence of relationship power dynamics on HIV testing in rural Malawi. Journal of sex research 2014. PMID: 24670263


  44. Haukoos JS, Campbell JD, Conroy AA, Hopkins E, Bucossi MM, Sasson C, Al-Tayyib AA, Thrun MW. Programmatic cost evaluation of nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening in the emergency department. PloS one 2013. PMID: 24391706


  45. Conroy AA. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi. Journal of interpersonal violence 2013. PMID: 24227592


  46. Conroy A, Yeatman S, Dovel K. The social construction of AIDS during a time of evolving access to antiretroviral therapy in rural Malawi. Culture, health & sexuality 2013. PMID: 23705846


  47. Yeatman S, Dovel K, Conroy A, Namadingo H. HIV treatment optimism and its predictors among young adults in southern Malawi. AIDS care 2012. PMID: 23227888


  48. Haukoos JS, Hopkins E, Conroy AA, Silverman M, Byyny RL, Eisert S, Thrun MW, Wilson ML, Hutchinson AB, Forsyth J, Johnson SC, Heffelfinger JD. Routine opt-out rapid HIV screening and detection of HIV infection in emergency department patients. JAMA 2010. PMID: 20639562


  49. Haukoos JS, Hopkins E, Byyny RL, Conroy AA, Silverman M, Eisert S, Thrun M, Wilson M, Boyett B, Heffelfinger JD. Design and implementation of a controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of routine opt-out rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening in the emergency department. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine 2009. PMID: 19673717