Olga Grinstead Reznick
¿Qué necesitan las mujeres negras para evitar el VIH?
¿Afecta el VIH a las mujeres negras?Sí. Desde el inicio de la epidemia, el VIH ha azotado a los hombres y mujeres negros radicados en EE.UU.
The following surveys were used with the Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Efficacy study, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of HIV counseling and testing for the prevention of new HIV infections.
Since 1991, the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) has conducted collaborative research with local community-based HIV prevention organizations within a consortium model. Community-based research (CBR) refers to research that is conducted by or with the participation of community members. As conducted by CAPS, CBR was a full partnership, with the CBO partner taking the lead on developing the research question, delivering the intervention, and collecting the data.
By the end of 2002, over 2 million adults were incarcerated in the US, and 93% of those were men. African Americans and Latinos were incarcerated at greater rates than Whites in the US, 7.6 times greater for African Americans and 2.6 times greater for Latinos. Nearly 40% of incarcerated men were under the age of 30. Young men of color are at high risk of incarceration and the health problems related to incarceration. These young men also are our neighbors, frequently passing in and out of jail and prison and returning back to the community.
En los EE.UU. existen más de 2 millones de personas adultas encarceladas y 4 millones más en libertad condicional. Las tasas de VIH son de 8 a 10 veces más altas para los encarcelados que para la población en general; las tasas de hepatitis C son de 9 a 10 veces más altas y las de enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS) entre hombres que recién ingresan a la cárcel alcanzan hasta un 35%.
There are more than two million adults incarcerated in the US and four million more on probation or parole. Rates of HIV are 8 to 10 times higher for incarcerated persons than for the general US population, hepatitis C rates are 9 to 10 times higher, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates among men entering jails are as high as 35%. Because many prisoners are serving short sentences for parole violation, and return to prison is common, at-risk individuals move frequently between prisons and their home communities.
As people are living longer and healthier lives with HIV, the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected sexual intercourse or sharing injection equipment continues to grow. While the general consensus is that most people who know they are HIV+ are careful to avoid transmitting the virus, it is estimated that one third of HIV+ gay/bisexual men continue to engage in unprotected sex. There is now a growing call to develop targeted and effective prevention strategies addressing the specific needs of people living with HIV.
CAPS and Centerforce, a community-based organization that has been providing services to prisoners and their families for thirty years, have been collaborating since 1993 to design and evaluate HIV prevention interventions for incarcerated men and their female partners.
Correctional facilities concentrate populations that are at risk for HIV infection: persons of color, persons with substance abuse histories, and persons living in poverty.1,2 As a result, the prevalence of HIV among US incarcerated populations is five to seven times that of the general US population.3,4 Furthermore, about 25% of people living with HIV in the US have been incarcerated.5 These statistics support the need for access to effective means of HIV prevention and harm reduction strategies in correctional facilities. Condoms are highly effective at preventing the transmission of HIV.6
This study explores HIV risk among men who were released from prison within the last year and are currently on parole and the women who are in sexual relationships with them. Couples are recruited from community sites in Oakland, CA for participation in a quantitative survey. The couple comes to an appointment together and then each person is interviewed separately by a gender-matched interviewer.