What is the role of male condoms in HIV prevention?
do condoms work?
Yes. The condom is one of the only widely available and highly effective HIV prevention tools in the US.1 When used consistently and correctly, latex male condoms can reduce the risk of pregnancy and many sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV by about 80-90%1-6. Condoms, including female condoms, are the only contraceptive method that is effective at reducing the risk of both STIs and pregnancy. When placed on the penis before any sexual contact, the male condom prevents direct contact with semen, sores on the head and shaft of the penis and discharges from the penis and vagina. Condoms thus should effectively reduce the transmission of STIs that are transmitted primarily through genital secretions such as gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, hepatitis B and HIV.1-6 Because condoms only cover the penis, they provide less protection from STIs primarily transmitted through skin-to-skin contact such as genital herpes, syphilis, chancroid and genital warts. Abstinence, mutual monogamy between uninfected partners, reducing the number of sexual partners and correctly and consistently using condoms during intercourse are all essential to slowing the spread of HIV/STIs.7 Condom effectiveness depends heavily on the skill level and experience of the user. Appropriate education, counseling and training on partner negotiation skills can greatly increase the ability of a person to use a condom correctly and consistently.2
what are the advantages?
Accessibility. Using condoms does not require medical examination, prescription or fitting. Condoms can be bought at drug stores, grocery stores, vending machines, gas stations, bars and the internet, and are distributed free at many STI and HIV clinics. Sexual enhancement. Using condoms can help delay premature ejaculation. Lubricated condoms can make intercourse easier and more pleasurable for women. And condoms do away with the “wet spot” left by semen leakage after sex. Using condoms helps reduce anxiety and fears of pregnancy and STIs so that men and women can enjoy sex more. Protect fertility. Some STIs can affect a woman’s ability to get pregnant; condoms can protect against some STIs and therefore help reduce the risk of infertility.8
what are the disadvantages?
Lack of cooperation. Women cannot directly control whether a condom is used and have to rely upon male cooperation. When men refuse, condom use may be impossible. Physical problems. Many men and their partners complain that condoms reduce sensitivity. Proper condom use requires an erect penis. Some men cannot consistently maintain an erection so condom use becomes difficult. Trying different kinds of condoms (such as thinner condoms) and using water-based lubricant can help increase sensation. Embarrassment. Some men and women may be embarrassed to buy condoms at a store, or take free condoms from a clinic. Others may be embarrassed to suggest or initiate using condoms because they perceive condom use implies a lack of trust or intimacy.9
how are they used?
The most important key messages for condom use are quite simple: 1) Use a new condom every time, with every act of intercourse, if there is a risk of pregnancy or STIs. 2) Before penetration, carefully unroll the condom onto the erect penis, all the way to the base. Put it on before the penis comes in contact with the partner’s vagina or anus. 3) After ejaculation (while the penis is still erect), hold the rim of the condom against the base of the penis during withdrawal.2,10 Even with adequate training and access to condoms, people won’t always use condoms perfectly. In the real world, people may fall in love, or make mistakes, or get drunk or simply decide not to use condoms. Having sex under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs greatly increases the chances of condom non-use, misuse and failure.11
what are concerns?
Condom education/distribution in schools. Although schools can be an important source of information on HIV/STIs, only 2% of public schools have school-based health centers, and only 28% of those make condoms available to students.13 In 2000, persons aged 15-24 had 9.1 million new cases of STIs and made up almost half of all new STI cases in the US. 47% of US high school students have had sexual intercourse.15Condom breakage and slippage (condom failure). Condom quality has been improving16 and for most users condom failure is relatively rare. About 4% of condoms break or slip off.2 However some persons report much higher rates. In one study, gay men who were unemployed and reported amphetamine and/or heavy alcohol use were more likely to report condom failure. Men who were frequent users of condoms and used lubricant reported less failure11. Counseling and education on condom use can greatly reduce condom failure.2Effectiveness of N-9. Condoms lubricated with the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) often cost more, have no proven protective advantage over condoms without N-9, have a shorter shelf life and might be harmful if used excessively. Many manufacturers have discontinued N-9 condoms.2,16
The following programs have been documented as effective by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and are currently being replicated nationwide.17Training on condom use and negotiation. The SISTA Project is a social skills training intervention for African American women designed to increase their comfort with and use of condoms. In small group sessions, women learn sexual assertion skills and proper condom use and discuss cultural and gender triggers that affect condom negotiation. Homework activities involve their male partners. Participants reported more condom use.18Changing community norms. The Mpowerment Project is a community-level program developed by and for young gay men that increases peer support and acceptance for safer sex. Peer-led M-groups use a gay-positive and sex-positive approach to teach men negotiation and condom use and train and motivate them to conduct informal outreach with their friends. Participants reported decreased rates of unprotected anal intercourse.19Combining HIV prevention with STI and unintended pregnancy prevention.The VOICES/VOCES program was implemented in an STI clinic and uses culturally-specific videos and skills building to increase condom use and negotiation among African American and Latino/a heterosexuals. The program is bilingual and includes education about different types of condoms and condom distribution. Participants reported more condom use and fewer repeat STIs.20
what needs to be done?
Better marketing and increased accessibility to condoms is needed in the US. Although condom use has increased in the past decade, there are still unacceptably high rates of STIs among sexually active adolescents and young adults and among gay men, two populations that are also at increased risk for HIV. New approaches to condom promotion are needed, ideally before the onset of sexual activity. For adolescents to use them, condoms must be easily and anonymously accessible, widely available and low cost. Distributing free condoms can also help increase condom use.21 To effectively address HIV prevention, all persons should have accurate and complete information about different prevention options. But the emphasis needs to be different for different groups. For example, while young people who have not started sexual activity need information and access to condoms, the first priority should be to encourage abstinence and delay of sexual intercourse. When targeting those at highest risk for HIV, the first priority should be to encourage correct and consistent condom use along with avoiding high-risk behaviors and partners.7 Are condoms foolproof? No. Neither are seat belts, helmets, abstinence pledges or vaccines. But in the real world we drive to work, vaccinate our children, and hope to get through the day unscathed. No public health strategy can guarantee perfect protection. The real question is not are condoms 100% effective, but how can we more effectively use condoms and other approaches to help reduce the risk of disease.
1. Scientific evidence on condom effectiveness for STD prevention. Report from the NIAID. July 2001. 2. Warner L, Hatcher RA, Steiner MJ. Male Condoms. In: Hatcher RA, Trussel J, Stewart F, et al, editors. Contraceptive Technology. New York: Ardent Media Inc. 2004:331-353. 3. Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004;82:454-461. 4. Weller S, Davis K. Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2002;(1):CD003255. 5. Hearst N, Chen S. Condom promotion for AIDS prevention in the developing world: is it working? Studies in Family Planning. 2004;35:39-47. 6. CDC. Male latex condoms and STDs. 7. Halperin DT, Steiner MJ, Cassell MM, et al. The time has come for common ground on preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Lancet. 2004;364:1913-1915. 8. Ness RB, Randall H, Richter HE, et al. Condom use and the risk of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, or infertility following an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94:1327-1329. 9. Miller LC, Murphy ST, Clark LF, et al. Hierarchical messages for introducing multiple HIV prevention options: promise and pitfalls. AIDS Education and Prevention. 2004;16:509-25. 10. ASHA. The right way to use a male condom. 1/30/05. 11. Stone E, Heagerty P, Vittinghoff E, et al. Correlates of condom failure in a sexually active cohort of men who have sex with men. Journal of AIDS. 1999;20:495-501. 12. McElderry DH, Omar HA. Sex education in the schools: what role does it play? International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health. 2003;15:3-9. 13. Santelli JS, Nystrom RJ, Brindis C, et al. Reproductive health in school-based health centers: findings from the 1998-99 census of school-based health centers. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003;32:443-451. 14. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2004;36:6-10. 15. Youth risk behavior surveillance–US, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2004;53:1-98. 16. Condoms: extra protection. Consumer Reports. Feb 2005. 17. www.effectiveinterventions.org 18. DiClemente RJ, Wingood GM. A randomized controlled trial of an HIV sexual risk reduction intervention for young African-American women. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1995;274:271-276. 19. Kegeles SM, Hays RB, Pollack LM, et al. Mobilizing young gay and bisexual men for HIV prevention: a two-community study. AIDS. 1999;13: 1753–1762. 20. O’Donnell CR, O’Donnell L, San Doval A, et al. Reductions in STD infections subsequent to an STD clinic visit: using video-based patient education to supplement provider interactions. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 1998;25:161–168. 21. Cohen DA, Farley TA. Social marketing of condoms is great, but we need more free condoms. Lancet. 2004;364:13. Prepared by Markus Steiner PhD* and Pamela DeCarlo** *Family Health International, **CAPS January 2005. Fact Sheet #2ER Special thanks to the following reviewers of this Fact Sheet: Barb Adler, Daniel Bao, Willard Cates, Bill Cayley Jr, Rick Crosby, Scott Dougherty, Ralph DiClemente, Paul Feldblum, Steve Gibson, Daniel Halperin, Norman Hearst, Mary Hoban, John James, Doug Kirby, Andrzej Kulczycki, Kay Stone, Koray Tanfer, Lee Warner, Dan Wohlfeiler.
Reproduction of this text is encouraged; however, copies may not be sold, and the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California San Franciso should be cited as the source of this information. For additional copies of this and other HIV Prevention Fact Sheets, please call the National Prevention Information Network at 800/458-5231. Comments and questions about this Fact Sheet may be e-mailed to [email protected]. © January 2005, University of California