In June 1996, the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies published the second occasional paper in this monograph series, entitled Sustaining Support for Domestic HIV Vaccine Research: Social Issues Over the Long Haul of Human Trials. Authored by Chris Collins, the research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health and the University of California, San Francisco. This new report is intended to function as an update to the 1996 monograph. Most of the social and ethical issues discussed in the original paper have not changed during the past two years. Therefore, you will find many of the previously identified challenges and stages of vaccine research and development, concerns about the design of HIV vaccine efficacy trials, goals of community education, potential benefits and harms for impacted communities, and levels of industry involvement, among others, retained. As a progress report on the state of HIV vaccine research, this paper attempts to highlight, generally, both the progress and lack of progress toward the primary recommendations laid out in the earlier paper. By focusing, up front, on the latest activities of government, affected communities, and industry, a clearer landscape of the state of HIV vaccine efforts comes into view; gaps in certain areas point to the work which remains to be done.